During this period Italy lost its leading position in European fine art and architecture, which it had retained throughout four centuries.
This section opens with the picture Napoleon enthroned by the celebrated Milanese neo-Classical painter, Andrew Appiani. Giovanni Migliari and Ippolito Caffi worked in the genre of urban vedute. Of significant interest is the group of pictures by Giacinto Gigante, a well-known master of Neapolitan landscapes: these were acquired by the Museum starting from the mid-1980s.
The main core of the Museum's collection of paintings from this period consists of works transferred to it in 1948 from the State Museum of New Western Art in Moscow. These were in the main works by prominent master of the 20th century, such as Gino Severini, Giorgio de Chirico, Achille Funi, Felice Casorati.